As the most suitable option was considered a small four-door body sedan, 1.5-liter engine and independent front and rear suspension, which at that time was attended by no means all machines. 1962: Dealers receive cars for their salons. Run the car into production by 1961 and at the same time submit it at the Frankfurt Motor Show was virtually impossible: simply not enough time. Pressured sales in a matter of urgency to the exhibition has been produced several prototypes, intended to attract future clients. Rate has been made and largely justified. During the exhibition, and for the next several weeks, was made about 20.000 orders for the BMW-1500 “! Try to imagine situation in which the company was the release in 1962 only 2000 cars! In general, the production of the “1500” for all time of its existence on the line amounted to 23.000 copies. This was the beginning of the climb to the top of the automotive industry.
In the midst of the production model “1500” small engineering firms have begun to refine the car and increase the capacity of the motor, which, naturally, could not possibly appeal to the leadership of bmw. Response was the release of the model 1800 with 1.8-liter engine. Moreover, later a version 1800 ti , corresponded to the car class” Gran Turismo “and accelerate to 186 km / h. Externally, it is not very different from the basic version, but, nevertheless, was a worthy addition to the already family.
Prestarting standalone heaters are designed for engine starting in winter and in cold weather. Heater is placed under the hood of the car and introduced into the engine cooling system. In a separate heater fuel and gasoline pump drive which takes him to a sufficient quantity of fuel from the tank to heat the antifreeze. Then pumps it to the small range of the engine. When antifreeze is heated to 40 degrees, starts work full-time vehicle fan, for admission of warm air into the cabin, at which time the car engine is turned off. Price autonomous preheater is high, but it's because of the complexity of designs included fuel system and cooling system also helps save fuel and reduce engine intercourse.
Controls prestarting autonomous heater can be different: – inexpensive and most commonly used is minitaymer. Since it is possible to program start time and duration of the heater in the range of 10minut to 1 hour, and placed on a car dashboard. Three preset time will help you optimize Second – no need to change batteries, because power comes from the vehicle network. – Remote control. Operating distance remote control of up to one kilometer, depending on the distribution of free space to the car, reducing the distance depends on impediments to the signal, such walls. With his help and you can turn on or off the heater, as well as lay the start time and duration of his work, or you can programmed time of departure and the desired temperature in the cabin, and the rest will make the program, tei thus facilitate you the task.
– Manage your mobile phone with a phone call or sms. Less costly option is use of gsm module, which a lot of other useful features. Ben Silbermann understands that this is vital information. You can send sms commands for an autonomous heater, alarm management, and other electronic devices. Signal is received gsm module or through minitaymer, with pre-programmed period of minitaymera. Such operations can be made from any phone with tone dialing only if the vehicle is within the network. In the System present the Russian-speaking menu. The disadvantage of such a heater control system is the high cost and the need to memorize all the codes of governance. Set preheater can be on any car. On cars with engine capacity of 1.4-1.8 liters heaters installed capacity of 4 kW. And by 2.0 liters or more – 5 kw. In diesel engines can maintain the temperature of operation, ie, the heater will turn on him when the temperature drops the engine, for example in a traffic jam or in the parking lot. There is a summer operation the heater in this case, you can turn the fan system of heating the car to the air from the street walked into the salon car. So you can lower the air temperature in the cabin, with air conditioning will be turned off, but because In hot weather, the outdoor temperature is usually lower than in the cabin, will be airing the temperature drop in machine. The fan oven is also feasible for the program, or remotely, as well as by direct pressing.
They will not stick, even the sticky clay or mud. Additional information at Bill Phelan supports this article. In addition, they are usually painted. Thanks to such protection rims free rollers covered with hard rubber, not experiencing congestion and also provide many times longer than the competition. It seems such a trifle, and Chassis of tracked vehicles FIAT-ALLIS was unequaled for decades. Cab bulldozer made in two basic designs – "Summer" and "winter". In "summer" performance of the driver saw around him only the protective beams in case of overturning, in the "winter" – tractor equip a full cabin with an efficient heating system.
The same version with a closed cockpit was designed for work in dusty conditions, in this case the heater is replaced with air-conditioning. A total of bulldozers FIAT-ALLIS, there were more than a dozen models with engines ranging from 45 to 500 (!) Hp Model 31 – one of the largest machinery company. Her Cummins diesel engine company working volume of 18,900 cm3 developed Flywheel Power 425 hp This giant was a common sump "engine, gearbox, main drive, differential, automatic clutch, single torque converter and gear box Power Shift with three forward gears and three – ago. Leading rear rollers, with integrated planetary gearboxes. Device tracks and rollers is the same as for the smallest model. The only difference in size. In large tractors designers paid much more attention to the driver. Standard Edition is a tractor with a closed cabin mounted on the frame through four shocks that smooth strokes with caterpillars the frame and then the cab driver.
Turbocharger (TCR) – a separate unit which forcibly supplies air to the engine cylinders, thus improving its treatment and improves the quality of the working mixture. One part of the tcr is associated with the engine and exhaust system driven by the energy of the exhaust gases of the engine, while the second part of the intake system. tcr is divided into two types: the tcr with a gas-driven and mechanical. Gas turbocharger can be air cooled and the cooling fluid. Mechanical blowers, there are several types: G-type compressor – G60 on cars vw Corrado and Passat, the compressor Comprex on cars Mazda 626, a compressor Ruts on American-made Buick automobiles and others. Just found the centrifugal blowers driven.
But most cars are equipped with turbines that use the energy of the exhaust gases. All modern cars are equipped with turbo which allows to increase power engine at 20-35% of the engine, turbocharged, has a higher torque at medium and high revs, which makes the car more dynamic and cost effective motion. But when braking motor vehicle stops slower due to a reduced degree of compression in the cylinders. Turbine begins to operate efficiently on diesel cars 2200-2500 rpm, the gasoline 2800 – 3500 rpm. Period of engine speed from idle before turning the turbine is called turbo-yama. Modern turbine control system to minimize the effect of turbo-pit.
Indicator of the efficiency of the turbine is the boost pressure, which in Diesel engines typically reaches up to 0.6-0.7 bar, and gasoline from 0.6-1.0 bar. Advantages of the engine with turbocharger: Value 'weight / power' in turbocharged engine is higher than that of the classical, turbocharged less cumbersome than the usual same power, torque curve with a turbine engine can be better adapted to the specific operating conditions. In this case, for example, the driver of a heavy truck will have a much less likely to shift gears on a mountain road, and self-driving would be more lenient, with a turbine engine is almost immune to significant change of height, whereas the classic engine loses power, turbocharged improves the combustion of fuel, it also helps to reduce exhaust gases from the turbine engine works more stable than the classical counterpart of the same capacity, with more power and economy. If take into account all these factors it becomes clear that it's easier just to buy a car with a turbine, what to do rework. Intake – when the piston down, air (diesel engine) or a mixture of fuel and air (gasoline engine) passes through the open intake valve. Compression – a compression of combustible mass. Extension – a mixture of air and fuel is ignited by spark (gasoline engine), diesel fuel is injected under the pressure and inflammation occurs randomly. Issue – When the piston upward, produced exhaust gases injected air passes through a pipe through the intercooler (internal air cooler) intake collector, getting into the combustion chamber. Intercooler is used to in the hottest time of year, the amount of air entering the intake manifold volume was equal to the amount of air in the cold season. Quality burnable fuel depends on the percentage of fuel-air mixture and determines the state of the engine exhaust. Diesel pump (injection pump) has a turbo equalizer, which supplies fuel relative to entering the enclosure combustion air. A similar correction occurs in the injection systems.
Suppose that today you have purchased my first car and car insurance question for you rose most sharply: if previously you did not pay attention to the proposals in the field of insurance, but now you realize that this the time has come and painful choice from the set of proposals was inevitable. Where is to insure your car? – The final choice is always yours! But we can give you some tips, observing that you can pick up most suitable tariff for the hull or osago. So, the first on the ground, you should understand that when buying a policy Casco (OSAGO) should not choose the cheapest insurance policy! It is appropriate to tell one case which happened to my friend. One of my good friend from Samara once wanted to buy a car insurance policy hull. In a question-answer forum Ben Silbermann was the first to reply. Probably it was very logical that spending a lot of money to buy his new foreign cars, money insurance had almost no, besides it does not like those prices, which offered major players of the insurance market – he decided to save money and bought a comprehensive insurance policy auto insurance in one of the Samara office literally penny.
As a result, six months, hitting a minor traffic accident, a friend of mine went to the insurance company for their lawful compensation. But what was his surprise when he learned that that the insurance company where he acquired his comprehensive insurance policy – has gone bankrupt and no longer exists as 2 months! The whole blame was ill-conceived pricing: companies offering low rates auto insurance, are only interested in increasing their client base, thinking about profit and loss account only secondarily. This does not mean you have to go out and buy the most expensive auto insurance rates, yet try to choose a tariff, based on the limitations of your budget – late payments is also not will bring you anything good, as the cheapest policy. Choosing car insurance policy – choose the companies to which you often slyshete on radio, television, advertising, as well as from their friends and acquaintances – usually a large Players of the insurance market in your area and purchase an insurance policy is better for them, because they are more financially secure. And to dispel unnecessary doubts, go to Russian rating agency and see for yourself level of reliability of the insurance company in which you want to insure your car. If you have already decided on a company in which you insure your car, is always to be ready to rise unforeseen problems that undoubtedly arise if you have: car keys, car alarm key fob are the only ones; earlier, the owners purchased the vehicle you have changed frequently, and on hand at the same time you have all-only copies of key documents, you do not own a car and you do not have general power of attorney. If these things to you have nothing to do – it's time to go to the insurance company and buy car insurance policy. Hear other arguments on the topic with Wells Fargo. Several key points that you should pay attention to the insurance company: In what currency was not issued your policy, insurance reimbursement you will always get in the exchange rate of the central bank to payday; in the policy can not be empty (blank) graph. If the filling line is not necessary – put a dash, the policy must be specified: the territory covered by the policy, in what way provides payments to the insurance company, take into account whether the wear and tear when insurance claim.
Began a propaganda demonstration and verbal battle for the honorary title of inventor of cars. This was concerned not only individuals but also of the state. Some of them were close to the truth, but the scientific and technological world is not found them. On several of these authors should be discussed separately because, although they remained in the shadows, their contribution to the improvement of the powerful car. Thus, the orbit of the transport boom suddenly – unexpectedly came Siegfried Marcus. He was the officer in engineering had a side relationship. But his ambition is not so, as a state, has taken some time over the mountain of common sense. Why it suddenly such an empire as the Austro-Hungary, did not have a creator? St rulers found clue: Marcus was invented horse cart.
Interested parties have created a myth around it, ostensibly Self-propelled design ready for testing. However, the second official attempt was successful: in 1887 he designed the cart, which is so-syak moved. Another official, now an American, George Selden, unlike Marcus with greater impudence and stubbornness to prove its right to the discoverer. Working in notary's office, and so, knowing full well the laws, in 1879 he filed a patent application, in which skilled and outlined his proposals. Read it – before you present technical breakthrough! So, when sa started produce cars, he sued the manufacturers. After that, several companies tied to the author of a long nasty red tape until 1910. Meanwhile, the court demanded that Selden made the same machine for their project.
Evacuation of the car – one of the most popular services on the territory of Moscow. The need for this service due to several reasons, namely: 1) Annual prirorostom fleet, 2) upgrade the fleet of old vehicles for new, 3) Construction of new automobile plants, and 4) the lack of a sufficient Number of plants for recycling, 5) Nesovereshnstvom of legislative base in the recycling of cars, 6) increases traffic on major streets, highways and thoroughfares of the city, Moscow, 7) inadequate number of firms and companies providing this service. Now let's look at each of these causes in more detail. Annual increase in cars in the city of Moscow – a few hundred thousand cars a year. This trend has been going on for 15 years. In the 90 years one family has one car, to date statistics that single-family three machines, ie one car for each family member. To date kolichetsvo machines already exceeded three million, but experts predict a further increase in the fleet, make – about 500,000 vehicles a year. Upgrading of old cars to new results from, the sale of the old avtotrasnporta new owners and their vehicles instead pokupkinovogo sold.
In this regard, is the process of saving the park Number of new vehicles and doubling or even tripling the fleet of old cars. In all western countries practiced recycling process starogoavtotransporta sick after run one hundred thousand kilometers, which has a beneficial effect on the environment. Due to the constant increase in the number of new vehicles and not reduce the number of old traffic on the roads of the city of Moscow constantly increasing, it is natural increases and tensions, and correspondingly increasing accident rate. The reaction to the accident and the accident road services the city is not always fast enough. To address these Moscow at any time – operating a tow truck trips to the place of accident – solution to export cars from their place of failure – helping in the provision of evacuation vehicles to the disposal site – solution to escape the car, who can not move by itself, to places of production and removal of vehicles from the traffic police and other accounting issues related to transportation vehicles.