Renaissance, or Renaissance, – two hundred year era of flourishing arts and sciences, which began in Italy around 1350 and spread throughout Europe. Even at the end of the XIV century, Italy was the richest and most populous part of the Europe. At that time it was divided into about 250 city-states ruled by the rich and noble families. That there has been a rapid surge in the development of culture and science. Scientists have put forward new ideas about the structure the world, educated people to re-open the art and philosophy of ancient Rome and Greece. Two hundred year era of discovery and change, known as the Renaissance. Italy has retained much of the heritage of ancient Roman civilization, though it was long passed into oblivion. Only in the middle of the XIV century, scientists began to rewrite the ancient manuscripts, and distribute them.
They contained information about the history of the ancient world and works of architecture, science and art. In Italy, were also works of the ancient Greeks, who were in Constantinople to its conquest by the Turks in 1453, the philosophical, literary and scientific works of ancient authors made on thinkers of the Renaissance impressed, they decided to revive the spirit of classical times. A new type of thinking – Humanism, brings people a central place in the universe. Wealthy aristocrats who ruled the Italian cities pay for correspondence manuscripts. Mighty Florentine Medici clan spared no expense in the art. Lorenzo de 'Medici, who ruled Florence from 1469 to 1492, even nicknamed the Magnificent, because he gathered around him the most prominent scientists and artists of his time. Francesco Sforza, who became duke of Milan in 1450, also famous as a generous philanthropist. In the Renaissance there were such great artists as Michelangelo and Raphael, who created the new style of painting, while greatly contributed to its development.